|Flower between the Tyches of Palmyra and Dura Europos, the froniter post on Rome's eastern border. From the fresco of Julius Terentius performing a sacrifice.|
- The Palmyrenes of Dura-Europos: A Study of Religious Interaction in Roman Syria by Lucinda Dirven
- Pagans and Christians in Late Antiquity: A Sourcebook by A. D. Lee
First, the flower appears to be a dogwood (Comus)*.
24. The Old Legend of the Dogwood
25. Jeffrey G. Meyer (2004). The Tree Book: A Practical Guide to Selecting and Maintaining the Best Trees for Your Yard and Garden. Simon and Schuster. pp. 258–. ISBN 978-0-7432-4974-4.
26. Thomas E. Barden (1991). Virginia Folk Legends. University of Virginia Press. pp. 61–. ISBN 978-0-8139-1335-3.
27. Ronald L. Baker (1 August 1984). Hoosier Folk Legends. Indiana University Press. pp. 7–. ISBN 0-253-20334-1.
Here, we see how the pagan mythology as at Dura Europos is later adopted - as so often - by Christianity.
We see such a floral emblem on Herodian tombs:
"Seal impressions from the Jemdet Nasr period (ca. 3100–2900 BCE) show a fixed sequence of city symbols including those of Ur, Larsa, Zabalam, Urum, Arina, and probably Kesh. It is likely that this list reflects the report of contributions to Inanna at Uruk from cities supporting her cult. A large number of similar sealings were found from the slightly later Early Dynastic I phase at Ur, in a slightly different order, combined with the rosette symbol of Inanna, that were definitely used for this purpose. They had been used to lock storerooms to preserve materials set aside for her cult. Inanna's primary temple of worship was the Eanna, located in Uruk (c.f. Worship)."
|One version of the star symbol of Inanna/Ishtar|
- The Mythology of Kingship in Neo-Assyrian Art by Mehmet-Ali Ataç, Cambridge University Press, 2010
The petals are often illustrated as heart-shaped, which allows the four to be seen as eight. This symbol, usually termed a rosette, is very ancient indeed and is seen from India, across the Middle East, to Egypt. It is a solar symbol (and the source of the ancient swastika).
*Thanks to Lisa Hansley for helping with the identification.