Chronology of Islam

The earliest extant Qur'an - close up of part of folio 2 recto, showing chapter division and verse-end markings:


These are some notes I'm working on, nothing more; comments and corrections welcome.

Qur'an:
The Prophet Muhammad is thought to have lived between 570-632, and according to Muslim tradition, he received the revelations that make up the Quran 610-632.
Researchers at the University of Birmingham found that the leaves of parchment date 568 - 645.
Claim that the proclamations of Muhammad wre brought together into the current anc complete text by a commission of three Meccans under the leadership of Zayid ibn Thabit of Medina, 650-656 (in the caliphate of 'Uthman.

Biographies - the first to depict the life of Muhammad:
"Sira" of Ibn Hisham d. 834
Campaigns by al-Waqidi d.822
"Classes" or "Generations" by Ibn Sa'd d. 845
"Annals" by al-Tabari d. 922
Six canonical collections of hadith, from late 9th century.

Arabia:
Sassanian Shapur II 309-379 integrated eastern Arabia with the central Arabian landscape of al-Yamama, then advanced to the Hijaz, overpowering Yemen in 572; to Syria and Palestine in 614.
Ghassanid buffer state dissolved in 584.
Sassanian armies before Antioch in 604.
Arabic building ncriptions in Syria in the 6th century.
'Abd al-Malik the first to found the Arabian church in Jerusalem.
From 601 8 papyri by Church scribes changed from Greek to Arabic.
661-662 Amir al-Mu'minim
674 Arabs attack Constantinople.
Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan 646 – 8 October 705; caliph after the death of his father Marwan I in 685.

Early Arab Conquests:
Conquest of Syria: 634–641
Conquest of Egypt: 639–642
Conquest of Mesopotamia and Persia: 633–651
Arab–Khazar wars:  First (сa. 642–652) and Second (ca. 722–737)
Arab conquest of Armenia Persian Armenia had fallen to the Arab Rashidun Caliphate by 645 CE. Byzantine Armenia was already conquered in 638–639.
Arab rule in Georgia First conquests and installation of Arab domination (645–736)
Conquest of the Maghreb: 647–742
Conquest of Transoxiana: 673–751
Conquest of Sindh: 711–714
Conquest of Hispania and Septimania: 711–721

Coins:
Sassanians minted coins in Egypt between 617-628, with Chosroes as ruler.
Dated coins bearing the name of Mu'awiya from mint of Darabjird in Iranian province of Fars; his name in East Aramaic (Mandaean tradition). MAAWIA is Aramaic and means "The Weeper"; Mu'awiya is called Amir-i wlwyshnyk'n and is the predecessor of the "Protector" as per the old Arabian tradition. Walker translates this as MAAWIA, Commander of the Faithful".
These are the earliest dated coins of Arabian Empire written in the tradition of Sassanian Empire.

Eastern Roman Empire:
613 lost Antioch to Iran.
In 613, the Jewish revolt against the Byzantine Heraclius culminated with the conquest of Jerusalem in 614 by Persian and Jewish forces and establishment of Jewish autonomy. The revolt ended with the departure of the Persians and an eventual massacre of the Jews in 629 by the Byzantines ending 15 years of Jewish autonomy.
614 lost Jerusalem to Iran.
Emperor Heraclius left Constantinope in 622 to campaign; marched towards Armenia and victory over Sassanians.
623 Heraclius attacked Ganzak and burned down the fire temple.
627 took Nineveh from Iran.
Death of Heraclius in 641; Arabs then begin to rule Syria (641).
Arab conquest of Roman Syria: 634–638; Siege of Damascus (634)
Siege of Jerusalem (636–637)
Arab conquests of North Africa: 639–698
Conquest of the Exarchate of Africa In 647, a Rashidun-Arab army led by Abdallah ibn al-Sa’ad invaded the Byzantine Exarchate of Africa. Tripolitania was conquered, followed by Sufetula, 150 miles (240 km) south of Carthage, and the governor and self-proclaimed Emperor of Africa Gregory was killed
Arab attacks on Anatolia and sieges of Constantinople
 Muawiyah I (r. 661–680) was the driving force of the Muslim effort against Byzantium, especially by his creation of a fleet, which challenged the Byzantine navy and raided the Byzantine islands and coasts. To stop the Byzantine harassment from the sea during the Arab-Byzantine Wars, in 649 Muawiyah set up a navy, manned by Monophysitise Christian, Copt and Jacobite Syrian Christian sailors and Muslim troops. This resulted in the defeat of the Byzantine navy at the Battle of the Masts in 655, opening up the Mediterranean.
 By 670, the Muslim fleet had penetrated into the Sea of Marmara and stayed at Cyzicus during the winter. Four years later, a massive Muslim fleet reappeared in the Marmara and re-established a base at Cyzicus, from there they raided the Byzantine coasts almost at will. Finally in 676, Muawiyah sent an army to invest Constantinople from land as well, beginning the First Arab Siege of the city.
The Saracen Wars of Justinian II (r. 685–695 and 705–711), last emperor of the Heraclian Dynasty, "reflected the general chaos of the age".[47] After a successful campaign he made a truce with the Arabs, agreeing on joint possession of Armenia, Iberia and Cyprus; however, by removing 12,000 Christian Mardaites from their native Lebanon, he removed a major obstacle for the Arabs in Syria, and in 692, after the disastrous Battle of Sebastopolis, the Muslims invaded and conquered all of Armenia.[48] Deposed in 695, with Carthage lost in 698, Justinian returned to power from 705-711.[47] His second reign was marked by Arab victories in Asia Minor and civil unrest.[48] Reportedly, he ordered his guards to execute the only unit that had not deserted him after one battle, to prevent their desertion in the next.[47]

I happen to think that having a good, detailed chronology, based on reliable evidence, is the most useful method for approaching an understanding of history.

Comment: I am deliberately avoiding much of Byzantine 'history' because at this point, I dismiss claims for Christianity in this period.


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